Windows 10 now offers an optional case-sensitive file system, just like Linux and other UNIX-like operating systems. All Windows processes will handle case-sensitive files and folders properly if you enable this feature. In other words, they’ll see “file” and “File” as two separate files.
This is an NTFS file system feature that you can enable on a per-directory basis. It doesn’t apply to your entire file system, so you can just enable case sensitivity for specific folders you use for development purposes.